- To evaluate the performance of Participatory Irrigation Management and Conventional Irrigation Management in water management at distributaries/minor’s level.
- To assess Farmers’ attitude towards Participatory Irrigation Management (PIM) in Sindh.
Supervisor Name: Dr. Abdul Latif Qureshi, Professor, USPCAS-W, MUET, Jamshoro
Co-Supervisor Name: Dr. Ali Asghar Mahesar, Deputy Director SBRP, Irrigation Dept. Government of Sindh
This study was conducted to compare the performance of conventional and participatory irrigation systems through some selected distributaries/minors of two largest canals of Sindh, namely Rohri and Nara canals, off-taking from Sukkur barrage on left hand side of the River Indus. The selected distributaries are from the extreme middle and tail reaches of these canals, from Matiari, Hyderabad and Mirpurkhas divisions.
The performance of canal irrigation system was examined through various performance indicators such as water availability or how much water is aavailable at the head of the distributary/minor, delivery performance ratio (DPR, that is ratio of actual discharge to design discharge), which will describe equity among stakeholders, water distribution among farmers through turnouts/ watercourses (observed by walk-thru survey) and water availability at the tail end/reach including in term of tail-end supply ratio (TSR) and recovery cost ratio (RCR) of secondary canals.
The discharge was measured at various gauge heights and Rating Curves were developed for all selected six secondary canals. The DPR values were computed for all three distributaries of Rohri Main Canal (RMC) which were more than 1.0, indicating availability of water at tail reach of RMC and better performance of Irrigation Department. On the other hand, DPR in selected FO distributaries varied from 0.4 to 1.5, which showed an un-judicious water distribution by Area Water Board (AWB)and failure in equitable distribution of water among its distributaries/minors at the tail reach.
Regarding availability of water at the tail of distributaries, three approaches, collection of gauge heights (if available), field monitoring/survey and collection of information through farmers interviews, were made. From interviews, about 30% farmers were of the view, that there is shortage of water in the tail reach i.e. less supply from head. However, these shortages are because of tempering of outlets, as also observed during walk-thru survey. This suggested that, still there is a gap between FO and other farmers/stakeholders which needs to be filled, so that there will be no or negligible shortage at all stages.
The availability of water in terms of tail-end supply ratio (TSR) is better in distributaries/minors managed by Farmers Organizations (FOs). However, these TSR values are less than 0.66 in all distributaries of Rohri canal system. The RCR of Mir minor was 100% as this was the only minor which supplied sufficient water at the tail reach. Keeping in view the population increase, which requires more food and fiber, it is suggested to redesign these distributaries and lining of the watercourses so as to supply required amount of water to fulfill crop water requirement with enhanced irrigation intensities,